Examples of miscellaneous commands in Cypress, for a full reference of commands, go to docs.cypress.ioopen in new window

cy.log()open in new window

To print a value into Command Log on the left side of the test runner, use cy.log() command.

cy.log('this is a string')
// you can use a small subset of Markdown: italics, bold
cy.log('this is **important**')
// you can pass arguments
const user = { name: 'Joe', age: 20 }
cy.log('user object', user)
cy.log('name', user.name, 'age', user.age)
// or form the message yourself
cy.log(`name \`${user.name}\` age \`${user.age}\``)

cy.log prints the number of elements

Let's say we want to print to the Command Log the number of elements the previous command has found.

<ul id="log-fruits">
cy.get('#log-fruits li')
  // you can add assertions to make sure the list is populated
  // prints just the number,
  // must be careful to yield the value to the next command
  .then((x) => {
    cy.wrap(x, { log: false })
  // if you want to add a message, use a callback function
  .then((n) => {
    cy.log(`found ${n} items`)
    cy.wrap(n, { log: false })
  // because cy.log never changes the current subject
  // we can confirm the found number of elements by adding an assertion
  .should('equal', 5)

Let's say you want to only count the number of fruits with the word "Grape" in them.

cy.get('#log-fruits li')
  // filter the list using jQuery :contains selector
  // if you want to add a message, use a callback function
  .then((n) => {
    cy.log(`found ${n} fruits with "Grape" in them`)
    cy.wrap(n, { log: false })
  // confirm the number of elements
  .should('equal', 2)

cy.log does not yield the original argument

Because cy.log yields null, Cypress will NOT yield the original argument to the next command or assertion. Thus you need to wrap the original value.

<button name="log-me">Submit</button>
  // "have.prop" assertion yields the value
  // of that HTML prop
  .should('have.prop', 'nodeName')
  // prints the nodeName value to the Command Log
  // and yields NULL to the next step
  .should('equal', null)

cy.log binds its arguments

When you call cy.log(arg) due to JavaScript rules, the value of the argument arg is bound immediately, but the printing happens asynchronously because every declared Cypress command is chained and executes after the previous command has finished. The following test shows both incorrect and correct way of printing the value of an HTML element.

<div id="username">Mary</div>
let username = null
cy.get('#username').then(($el) => (username = $el.text()))
cy.log(username) // always prints null ⚠️

When cy.log(username) is called in the above text block, the value of username is null. JavaScript passes primitive types by value. Thus the value null is passed into cy.log() call. Later, when the cy.get and .then commands complete, the command cy.log in the chain gets its turn to run - and it prints the value of the argument it has received at the start which is null.

Instead we need to call cy.log only when the argument value is known and set.

// ✅ CORRECT - prints "Mary"
  .then(($el) => (username = $el.text()))
  .then(() => {
    // by this point the "username" primitive variable
    // has been set, and the call is made cy.log("Mary")
<div id="last-user">Mary</div>

An alternative to using a primitive variable with cy.log is to pass an object by reference, then fill a value in the object. Since the reference passed to cy.log is unchanged, the Command Log will print the values inside the object at the moment LOG runs after previous commands have finished.

const user = { name: null }
cy.get('#last-user').then(($el) => (user.name = $el.text()))
cy.log(user) // prints { user: "Mary" }

.end()open in new window

To end the command chain, use the .end() command.

<table class="table table-bordered misc-table">
      <td>User: Cheryl</td>
      <td>User: Charles</td>
      <td>User: Darryl</td>
// cy.end is useful when you want to end a chain of commands
// and force Cypress to re-query from the root element
cy.get('.misc-table').within(() => {
  // ends the current chain and yields null

  // queries the entire table again

cy.exec()open in new window

To execute a system command, use the cy.exec() command.

// execute a system command.
// so you can take actions necessary for
// your test outside the scope of Cypress.
// https://on.cypress.io/exec

// we can use Cypress.platform string to
// select appropriate command
// https://on.cypress/io/platform
  `Platform ${Cypress.platform} architecture ${Cypress.arch}`,

// on CircleCI Windows build machines we have a failure to run bash shell
// https://github.com/cypress-io/cypress/issues/5169
// so skip some of the tests by passing flag "--env circle=true"
const isCircleOnWindows =
  Cypress.platform === 'win32' && Cypress.env('circle')

if (isCircleOnWindows) {
  cy.log('Skipping test on CircleCI')


// cy.exec problem on Shippable CI
// https://github.com/cypress-io/cypress/issues/6718
const isShippable =
  Cypress.platform === 'linux' && Cypress.env('shippable')

if (isShippable) {
  cy.log('Skipping test on ShippableCI')


cy.exec('echo Jane Lane')
  .should('contain', 'Jane Lane')

if (Cypress.platform === 'win32') {
  cy.exec('print renovate.json').its('stderr').should('be.empty')
} else {
  cy.exec('cat renovate.json').its('stderr').should('be.empty')

  cy.exec('pwd').its('code').should('eq', 0)

cy.focused()open in new window

To get the DOM element that has focus, use the cy.focused() command.

<form class="misc-form">
  <div class="form-group">
    <label for="name">Name</label>
  <div class="form-group">
    <label for="description">Description</label>
    <textarea class="form-control" id="description"></textarea>
// https://on.cypress.io/focused
cy.focused().should('have.id', 'name')

  // we can check if the focused element has a specific ID
  .should('have.id', 'description')
  // or if it matches the entire given CSS selector
  .and('match', '.misc-form textarea#description')

cy.screenshot()open in new window

To take a screenshot, use the cy.screenshot() command.

  blackout: ['.foo'],
  capture: 'viewport',
  clip: { x: 0, y: 0, width: 200, height: 200 },
  scale: false,
  disableTimersAndAnimations: true,
  screenshotOnRunFailure: true,
  beforeScreenshot() {},
  afterScreenshot() {},

cy.wrap()open in new window

To wrap an object or a value, use the cy.wrap() command.

// https://on.cypress.io/wrap
cy.wrap({ foo: 'bar' })
  .should('have.property', 'foo')
  .and('include', 'bar')
cy.wrap(42).should('equal', 42)

Once you have an object wrapped, you can access its properties, invoke its methods, and even pass it via an alias.

  name: 'Joe',
  getName() {
    return this.name
  .should('equal', 'Joe')

// the method could be a function
const getMagicNumber = () => 42
  getNumber: getMagicNumber,
  .should('equal', 42)

// you can wrap the object as alias
  name: 'Joe',
  getName() {
    return this.name
  getNumber: getMagicNumber,
// some time later get the alias and use it
cy.get('@wrappedObject').its('name').should('equal', 'Joe')
cy.get('@wrappedObject').invoke('getName').should('equal', 'Joe')
cy.get('@wrappedObject').invoke('getNumber').should('equal', 42)

Wrapping DOM objects

If you have a reference to a plain DOM element, you can wrap it to perform Cypress commands and assertions.

<div id="wrap-dom-example">
  <p class="inner">This is some text</p>
// first, let's imagine we got the reference to the LI element
// using DOM traversal method instead of cy.get
cy.document().then((doc) => {
  const div = doc.querySelector('#wrap-dom-example')
  expect(Cypress.dom.isElement(div), 'is element').to.be.true
  expect(Cypress.dom.isJquery(div), 'is wrapped in jQuery').to.be
  // if we want to use cy.contains to find specific text
  // we can use cy.wrap first
    .contains('some text')
    .should('have.class', 'inner')
  // we can wrap the element to use jQuery assertions
  cy.wrap(div).should('have.id', 'wrap-dom-example')

Wrapping promises

If cy.wrap receives a Promise as an argument, Cypress automatically waits for the promise to complete.

const p = new Promise((resolve) => {
  setTimeout(() => {
  }, 1000)
cy.wrap(p).should('equal', 'Hello')

See recipe Wrap promises.


Cypress bundles Bluebirdopen in new window library under Cypress.Promiseopen in new window property. This library has a lot of helper methods, making writing asynchronous code very intuitive.

const p = Cypress.Promise.resolve(42).delay(450)
  .should('equal', 42)
  // you can wrap the already resolved promise
  .then(() => {
    cy.wrap(p).should('be.a', 'number').and('equal', 42)

Promises are eager

As soon as a promise object is created, it start running. Other Cypress commands are chained first and run one after another. To create a Promise and wrap it after a Cypress commands completes, construct the Promise inside .then callback.

  .then(() => {
    // create the promise after the previous command
    // cy.wait(1000) has finished
    cy.wrap(Cypress.Promise.resolve('starts now').delay(1000))
    // note that wrapped value is automatically yielded
    // to the command or assertion in the command chain
  .should('equal', 'starts now')

The above test can be rewritten without cy.wrap - by just returning the promise from the .then callback.

// wait one second
// create the promise, wait for it to resolve
// then assert the yielded value
  .then(() => {
    // create the promise after the previous command
    // cy.wait(1000) has finished
    return Cypress.Promise.resolve('starts now').delay(1000)
  .should('equal', 'starts now')